Bioquímica del Burro

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Parameter/units Average Range Interpretation
Trig mmol/l 1 (0.2 - 4.3) Triglyceride. Elevations occur in hyperlipaemia.
CPK IU/l 97 (36 - 360) Creatine phosphokinase. Elevations seen in the presence of acute myopathy: Skeletal myopathy, cardiac myopathy and brain pathology.
AST IU/l 220 (11 - 402) Aspartate aminotransferase. Elevations seen with acute myopathy or hepatopathy. Elevations in combination with CPK indicate that muscle is the most likely source.
GGT IU/l 29 (13 - 79) Gamma glutamyl transferase. Found in hepatocyte and biliary cell membranes, pancreas and the kidney. Elevations are seen in acute hepatitis, chronic liver cirrhosis, chronic pyrrolizidine alkaloid toxicity and rarely with pancreatitis.
GLDH IU/l 2.9 (0.7 - 14.6) Glutamate dehydrogenase. A mitochondrial enzyme; elevations seen with acute hepatocellular damage, and sometimes seen in skin conditions and enteropathy.
ALP IU/l 265 (110 - 563) Alkaline phosphatase. A brush border enzyme; elevations are seen in chronic biliary obstructive liver pathology, abnormalities of bone metabolism and intestinal disease.
Bile acids <20 . Elevations occur with impaired hepatobiliary function such as cholelithiasis, acute hepatitis, chronic liver cirrhosis, and chronic pyrrolizidine alkaloid toxicity. May sometimes be seen with hyperlipaemia, malignant lymphoma and toxic myopathy.
Tbil μmol/l 2.7 (1.4 - 7.7) Total bilirubin. Increases may be difficult to interpret without clinical disease. Levels can increase with anorexia and intestinal malfunction.
TP g/l 70 (58 - 82) Total protein. Composed of albumin and globulins. Elevations seen with dehydration, inflammation and myeloma. Decreases may be seen with renal and gastrointestinal disease (loss), hepatic disease and starvation (reduced production).
Alb g/l 28 (20 - 34) Albumin. Hypoalbuminaemia may be seen with decreased synthesis resulting from intestinal malabsorption, malnutrition, chronic inflammatory disease and chronic liver disease. It is lost in renal disease and gastrointestinal disease.

Hypoalbuminaemia occurs only in severe dehydration.

Amylase IU/l 8 (0 - 24) Elevations occur with pancreatitis.
Lipase IU/l 16 (1 - 66) Elevations occur with pancreatitis.
Glucose mmol/l . (3.1 - 5) Blood glucose concentration is related to diet, insulin, glucagon and body requirement. Prolonged hyperglycaemia is seen in hyperadrenocorticism and pituitary adenoma. A transient hyperglycaemia occurs postprandially and with stress. Hypoglycaemia can be seen in liver failure, septicaemia, malabsorption and starvation. Can be used for the diagnosis of intestinal malabsorption. False reductions in serum glucose may occur in vitro due to glycolysis by erythrocytes.
Na mmol/l . (130 - 149) Sodium. Hypernatremia may be seen in dehydration and salt poisoning. Hyponatraemia can occur with diarrhoea, adrenal insufficiency, renal disease, excessive sweating or sequestration of fluid. Hyponatraemia with hyperkalemia may

occur in uroperitoneum and hypoadrenocorticism.

K mmol/l . (2.8 - 4.3) Serum potassium is not a reliable indicator of total body potassium as concentrations vary between the intracellular and extracellular fluid, and values should be interpreted in conjunction with blood pH. Hyperkalemia can occur with tissue necrosis, strenuous exercise, acidemia, uroperitoneum, hypoadrenocorticism and artefactually with erythrocyte haemolysis. Hypokalemia can occur with anorexia, excess sweating, urinary and gastrointestinal loss.
Cl mmol/l . (95 - 108) Changes in chloride concentration may accompany changes in sodium concentration, and vary inversely with bicarbonate concentration. Hypochloridemia can result from loss of gastric HCl e.g. in obstruction of the small intestine, and

anterior enteritis. It may also occur with loss of colonic Cl e.g. in colitis.

Chol mmol/l . (1 - 3) Elevations in cholesterol can occur if there is abnormal lipid metabolism and hyperlipaemia.
  • Svendsen, E.D., Duncan, J. and Hadrill, D. (2008) The Professional Handbook of the Donkey, 4th edition, Whittet Books, Appendix 1

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